Allow us to introduce hydrogen electrolysis. Because hydrogen is a clean universal fuel that can be used to power buses, trucks, cars, planes, trains, boats and ships. There is no carbon imprint and it is renewable and sustainable.
SMOG IN CHINA
China’s ‘airpocalypse’ kills 350,000 to 500,000 Chinese each year.
China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of coal, which meets more than 70 percent of its energy needs. The country produced 3.8 billion tons of coal in 2011 – almost half of the world’s total. Coal may be considered a cheap source of energy, but the air and water pollution caused by the mining and use of the mineral is devastating. According to Greenpeace, 2.5 tons of water is polluted for each ton of coal produced.
“If air pollution is not reduced we will have more and more respiratory disease, including lung cancer, COPD, asthma and even pneumonia and also heart disease, coronary heart disease,” warned Dr Bai, who is also chairman of the Chinese Alliance against Lung Cancer and the director and founder of the Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute. China diagnoses around 1.3 million new cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema each year, and around 600,000 new cases of lung cancer. Over the last 30 years deaths ascribed to lung cancer have risen by a factor of five in China,
Everywhere you go in China, you will observe electrical transmission lines. These are all very necessary to support industrial growth. There is a high price to be paid for coal driven turbines. The sky is blue only for a short time after a rainfall because of the heavy smog overcast.
The Communist Party is worried that if they don’t solve severe environmental problems, they will be rejected by growing discontent: thousands of premature deaths annually and billions of workdays due to sickness. China’s rivers and lakes are among the world’s most polluted.
There is a real problem when the Petroleum Institute publishes annual reports which show that all the petroleum in the world will likely be used up by about 2045 and all the natural gas in the world will be used up by about 2065, at current consumption rates.
The Toyota FCHV-adv, Toyota’s latest fuel cell vehicle can go over 430 miles on one tank of hydrogen. The combination of range, efficiency, and cleanliness is why hydrogen offers the best promise of completely removing motor vehicles from the pollution equation.
Over 500 hydrogen fueling stations are currently operating around the world, and are demonstrating just how quickly and easily FCEVs can be filled. In the U.S., California has more than 20 operating (8 public) and is supporting deployment of new public hydrogen stations in the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas, and other stations are open, or in planning, in a number of other states.
There are 135,000 service stations in EU-25 in Europe. The wish of the European Commission for the market share of hydrogen in the transportation sector is 5% by 2020 This corresponds to about 8000 filling stations with a capacity of 1000 Nm3 H2/h. About 200 hydrogen-filling stations have been built for demonstration purposes so far more than one third of them based on reforming. For the first time, every location in Germany can be reached by a fuel-cell vehicle.
An electrolyzer works by running an electrical current through water that splits it into oxygen and hydrogen: the only byproducts are heat and water.
Currently, hydrogen is primarily used in the chemical industry, but in the near future it will become a significant fuel. There are many processes for hydrogen production. Today, more than 95 percent of the annual global hydrogen requirement is obtained from natural gas. Hydrogen from natural gas (produced via steam reforming at fueling station): $4 – $5 per kilogram of hydrogen
Water electrolysis works well at a small scale, and the process is even more sustainable if electricity used is derived from low cost renewable sources like the HUG.
Economics of renewable resources for hydrogen production
New Technology: Researchers at the University of Calgary say they have developed a novel method for making catalysts using inexpensive metals with the catalysts costing just $58 an ounce, as opposed to $1700 an ounce for platinum. Another new type of fuel cell catalyst that has more than 30 times the catalytic activity than conventional catalysts and uses 85% less platinum.
The HUG system is entirely sustainable at a maintenance costs of $0.01/kWh, which is the exact amount of government subsidy provided for each kWh. This cost does not include the interest paid for the capitalization over 25 years.
Forecourt Hydrogen Production
Forecourt production develops the potential economic advantages of placing small modular units at fueling stations to avoid the initial investment of underutilized large central facilities and delivery infrastructures.
Construction of a 100% Renewable Hydrogen Refueling Station: $2,125,000 Interest Rate: 5% for 25 years: $12,400/mo
|Adjustable Rates / Model||kWh consumed per hour||H2 gas produced cubic meters/hour
||H2 gas produced Nm3 H2/hr
Electrolysis Unit HG -200: Interest Rate: 5% for 25 years Monthly Payment: $4,700/mo
The cost of gaseous storage tubes on pressure: at a low 140 atm the low cost of tube is $400/kg H2 whereas at 540 atm the cost is $ 2100/kg H2 using other processes.
The initial size of small-scale reformers for hydrogen filling stations should be between100 and 300 Nm3 H2/hr. We use 200 Nm3 H2/hr in our estimates.
If a fuel cell car takes 4 kg of hydrogen per fill, then one unit can only fill 32 cars a day.
An average car drives 12,000/365 = 33 miles per day so it would use about ½ kg of hydrogen. So this small-scale reformers unit would support a fleet of about 250 cars.
Due to high energy requirements of about 32.9 – 60 kWh (kilowatt hours) x $0.045–$0.05/kWh (non-peak hours) to produce one kilogram of hydrogen gas in most industrial electrolysers, the cost to produce is high: $14,800 -$30,000/month for 10,000 kg/month of hydrogen
The goal is to build each hydrogen filling station with a capacity of 1000 Nm3 H2/h, which will reduce the overall cost by a further 10%
CHEAP ELECTRICITY: $0.01/kWh (after subsidy of the same value), which is much less than $0.07/kWh, the cost in China for coal turbines.
It is economical where the electricity is very cheap. The process of electrolysis used for extraction of hydrogen was always considered to be more expensive compared to the conventional methods of production of H2 from hydrocarbons — until the HUG lowered the cost of electricity
1. Construction of a 880 kW HUG System: $4,718,000 Interest Rate: 5% for 25 years: $36,175/mo.
2. Construction of Hydrogen Refueling Station: $2,125,000 Interest Rate: 5% for 25 years: 12,400/mo.
3. Electrolysis System: $800,000 Interest Rate: 5% for 25 years: 4,700/mo.
The HUG electricity cost is only $0.01/kWh (after subsidies) and delivery cost is reduced: $6,000/mo.
Operational / maintenance cost (labour, electric energy cost etc.): 15% 17,800/mo.
Total Cost: $7,643,000: $77,075/mo.
Total Cost with Current Subsidy: $3,315,000: $35,500/mo. + $23,800 = $59,300/mo.
Sales of Hydrogen per filling station: 10,000 kg/mo x $7.77/kg = $77,700/mo to break even without any subsidies.
The California Energy Commission has awarded $46.6 million in funding to several companies in order to build 28 new hydrogen fueling stations or $1,660,000/Hydrogen Filling Station: this represents a 78% funding for a Hydrogen Refueling Station. Could this potential funding ($3,886,000)increase for the Construction of a 880 kW HUG System, which is the starting point for the whole project?
Sales of Hydrogen per filling station: 10,000 kg/mo x $5.93/kg = $59,300/mo to break even with Current Subsidies.
(With a capacity of 10,000 gal/mo gasoline equivalent)
Cost per gallon Hydrogen: $1.00 – $1.80/kg (gge) gallon of gasoline equivalent: versus US Gasoline: $1.85 – $2.30/US gallon:
Subsidy Shortfall: $1.80/$5.17/kg: $7,600/mo shortfall x 12 = $90,000 in order to sell the Hydrogen at $5.80/kg. A reduction in the $1.25 sales tax would provide the necessary return on investment while the price of U.S. gasoline is below $2.67.
The set-up cost will require putting some kind of price on carbon, which is coming. In some cities, the pollution is so bad that you rarely see the sun, except for a few hours after a rainfall. There is simply no other choice to eliminate the carbon imprint.
Yet, $5.80/kg still seems like a bargain when you factor in the high efficiency of hydrogen fuel: 66 miles/gal.:
As a point of reference, hydrogen (likely from natural gas) sold for $8.18/kg (41% increase)at the Washington, D.C. Benning Road Shell fueling station. Moreover, hydrogen produced from hydroelectric power sold for $6.28/kg (8% higher) in Norway.
As the price of both oil and gas have always historically increased, the profit margins of a Hydrogen Filling Station will increase proportionally as you can see from the 41% increase above.
Sources: National Hydrogen Association U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA)
INNOVATIVE HUG: supplying the Hydrogen Service Stations for hybrid trucks, buses and cars.
- The Hydrogen is created at or near the Hydrogen Filling Station: within the city at a pylon of a bridge or behind an installed Energy Body
- The cost of this station is being reduced by half, because of expensive delivery of hydrogen gas is eliminated.
- No smog and no need for long high pressured hydrogen pipelines or specialized trucks.
- The cost of this station is reduced because of expensive transfer of Hydrogen gas is eliminated.
- provides cheap electricity: $0.01/kWh (after subsidy of the same value), which is much less than $0.07/kWh, the cost in China for coal turbines.
- The Chinese in Beijing are planning to build a hydrogen park: they have a goal of reducing its hydrogen power consumption lower than $0.038/kWh.
GREEN HYDRO POWER STATIONS The installation of most of very low head sites is technically feasible, but civil works give rise to high costs, resulting to economically enviable projects. To solve this problem, one must design a new machine using a completely different philosophy to equip such sites. The study of current turbines reveals that they were all invented on the basis of a poor understanding of hydrodynamics, and a consequent false premise.
MOBILE HUG: The HUG development is an exciting breakthrough in green energy. Small batches of HUG turbines can be installed with only a short period of 12 to 18 months between investment in the technology and the time when revenue starts to flow: it is modular, relatively easy to install and highly scalable.
PRE-FABRICATED HUG Standardized pre-fabricated modules should make it possible to order this new product as a “power plant kit” just like ordering from a catalog. The HUG power plant uses standardized parts, so no custom engineering is necessary. A one-size-fits-all pathway could be ordered.
Why is the HUG Frictionless? When we direct the water to flow at its natural mode, it hugs the inner wall. This kind of vortex motion tends to accelerate and contract the stream of water. The less collisions improves the flow, i.e. the better ordered and more dense the flow will be. The net result is that the velocity of the flow in the HUG is four to five times faster than the river velocity.
SOME IMPORTANT LINKS:
HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION
AFRICA RENEWED supported by:
- A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: Africapitalism.us
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com