Tag Archives: Canadian

HUG WAVE ENERGY INNOVATION

Ocean Wave Electricity

Here is the SECRET! The HUG  Wave Energy innovation adds over three times the increase of velocity created from its vortex. The turbine’s power is proportional to the cube of its average velocity. Thus, a doubling of the average speed of the flow results in an eight-fold increase in its power, which results in the lowest cost: $0.01/kWh.

wave energy

The Solution: There have been a lot of wasted efforts in solving wave energy problems because of a wrong pathway. This may be the real reason why United States and Canada have not entered into the fray with the Europeans: they had not been presented with an obvious valid solution with adequate power density.  The HUG‘s compact and robust wave power plant enables over ten times higher annual energy output per ton compared to conventional wave devices.

The real advantage of the HUG is POWER from the action of the vortex in the HUG and the Venturi effect created by the shape of the HUG:hug wave energy

Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: HIGH POWER DENSITY Continue reading HUG WAVE ENERGY INNOVATION

MEGA DROUGHT

GREAT MEGA DROUGHT COMING

The U.S. Southwest and Central Plains regions are likely to be scorched by a decades-long “mega drought” in the second half of this century if climate change continues unabated, scientists from NASA and Cornell and Columbia universities have warned.

In a study published by the journal Science Advances this week, the researchers forecast that future drought risk in the area is likely to exceed even the driest conditions experienced during extensive Medieval-era periods that have been dubbed “megadroughts.”

There is an 80 per cent chance of an extended drought between 2050 and 2099 unless aggressive steps are taken to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the article predicted.

Richard Seager, a senior researcher at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, looked at 19 computer models of the future under current global warming trends. He found remarkable consistency: Sometime before 2050, the models predicted, the Southwest will be gripped in a dry spell akin to the Great Dust Bowl drought that lasted through most of the 1930s.

“Ultimately, the consistency of our results suggests an exceptionally high risk of a multidecadal megadrought … (and) a level of aridity exceeding even the persistent megadroughts that characterized the Medieval era,” the scientists wrote.

The researchers said their results point to a remarkably drier future, one that presents a substantial challenge and “falls far outside the contemporary experience of natural and human systems in Western North America.”

Future droughts will occur in a significantly warmer world, the study added, and conditions are likely to be a major added stress on both natural ecosystems and agriculture. (Rich Pedroncelli/ Associated Press)

They said the number of people living in the U.S. Southwest and Central Plains, and the volume of water they need, had increased rapidly over recent decades and that these trends are expected to continue for years to come.

Future droughts will occur in a significantly warmer world, the study added, and conditions are likely to be a major added stress on both natural ecosystems and agriculture.

It said recent years have seen the widespread depletion of nonrenewable groundwater reservoirs.

“Combined with the likelihood of a much drier future and increased demand, the loss of groundwater and higher temperatures will likely exacerbate the impacts of future droughts, presenting a major adaptation challenge,” it said.

Ironically, the total economic cost of climate change in the United States will be major and nationwide in scope, but remains uncounted, unplanned for and largely hidden in public debate, says a study from the University of Maryland.

megadrought
Mega Drought

Continue reading MEGA DROUGHT

HUG RUN OF RIVER

OUR NORTHYDRO STRATEGY

  •  Stage 1   To capture energy from Run-of-River, Rapids and Waterfalls with the HUG 
  •  Stage 2   To introduce a smaller version of the HUG: for Fish and Hunting Camps                            
  •  Stage 3   HUG Hydro electricity and irrigation in remote areas: to support work in  South America and Africa.   
  • Stage 4   To Introduce the HUG Water Transfer System to crisis area
  • Stage 5   To introduce commercially viable HUG Tidal Energy

River hydrokinetic energy has great potential, but it is still very much in the developmental stage.

‘Run-of-River’ Innovation

The usual ‘Run-of-River’ hydroelectric facilities could be improved by more than 300% by using the HUG system, because it maximizes the kinetic energy. One must harness the natural serpentine flow instead of the straight pipes leading to the bottom  of a Run-of-River turbine.Slide29

  1. Redirecting water flow to ‘Run-of-River’,  funnels into an innovative HUG, which requires no dam and uses the Power of the Vortex.
  2. Presently no patents exist, which are commercially viable, to capture energy from rapids or rivers without a dam.
  3. Canada has tremendous potential for small hydro development with more than 5500 identified sites (11,000 MW), which require no dams or barrages.
  4. The global technical potential of small hydro power is estimated between 150,000 and 200,000 MW.

    HUG RUN-OF-RIVER
    HUG RUN-OF-RIVER
HUG RUN-OF-RIVER
HUG POWER SYSTEM

Fitzsimmons Creek Run-of-River: Reanalysis

A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ELECTRICITY

Continue reading HUG RUN OF RIVER

HUG & ABORIGINAL RENEWAL

ABORIGINAL RENEWAL

ABORIGINAL CONCERNS
ABORIGINAL CONCERNS

 We can start an aboriginal renewal under the Aboriginal Loan Guarantee Program for the HUG. Aboriginal communities will be eligible for loan guarantees for assistance of up to 85% of total eligible economic development costs. These communities may offer land as cash in kind as part of their investment.

OUR NORTHYDRO STRATEGY

  • Stage 1   To introduce a smaller version of the HUG: for Fish and Hunting Camps  
  • Stage 2   HUG Hydro electricity & irrigation in remote areas  in Africa.
  • Stage 3   To capture energy from Run of River, Rapids and Waterfalls with the HUG
  • Stage 4   To Introduce the HUG Water Transfer System to crisis areas
  • Stage 5   To introduce commercially viable HUG Tidal Energy
ABORIGINAL TOURIST, HUNTING AND FISHING CAMPS WITH ELECTRICITY

The Federal Aboriginal Loan or Grant for Industrial Development of Native Reservations for a pilot energy project:

  1. On the St. Charles River on the Wendake Reservation.
  2. With Native Communities near Fort McMurray: People of the Lower Athabasca
  3.  Electricity for the Ring of Fire Mining Companies 
  4.  Nemiscau
  5. Attawapiskat
  6. Notakwanon River

The Nation Huronne-Wendat may wish to offer the value of the land, on which the project is operating, as cash-in kind, as part of their contribution to the funding sources.

The most important consideration is cost: $885/kW is unusually low compared to most other hydro electric generation systems. In 2009, Hydro-Quebec cost for 4500 MW was $5,100/kW. See the comparison chart below.

Presently no patents exist to capture energy from fast moving rivers up to now. The Power Density of any pilot projects designed to capture energy from tides is 2.4 to 6.9 kW/m2. The reason for the low efficiency is that the flow of a current treats all these turbines as obstacles to be avoided. The HUG Power Density is an unbelievable 73 kW/m2. The Power Density increases to the cube of the velocity and the HUG velocity is four to five times faster than the competition.

HUG & ABORIGINAL RENEWAL
THE MICRO HUG

Continue reading HUG & ABORIGINAL RENEWAL

HUG AND THE GREAT LAKES

The Great Lakes and the HUG System

 The water level behind the Otto Holden Hydro Dam on the Ottawa River can be maintained at 179.5 m above sea level, while the water level in Lake Huron is 176.5 m. This difference of 3 m is the basis of water transfer through a HUG Siphon System for 171 km. to the Great Lakes.

The damage has  been done to thousands of homes in the National Capital Region and along the Ottawa River in May 2017 in millions of dollars. This was suppose to be an event that only comes every 50 years. We can expect that this will be a 5 year event with global change. What we need is a Big Ditch!

OUR NORTHYDRO STRATEGY

  •  Stage 1   To capture energy from Run-of-River, Rapids and Waterfalls with the HUG 
  •  Stage 2   To introduce a smaller version of the HUG: for Fish and Hunting Camps                            
  •  Stage 3   HUG Hydro electricity and irrigation in remote areas: to support work in Africa.   
  • Stage 4   To Introduce the HUG Water Transfer System to crisis area
  • Stage 5   To introduce commercially viable HUG Tidal Energy

Presently no patents exist which are commercialized in order to transfer fresh water seven times farther than existing pipelines. None of the incumbent technologies exceed 80 km using underwater pipelines, except for the HUG, an Innovative Water Transfer System, which has a 500 km range.

·         The HUG Siphon system can be buried under any populated built up areas. HUG can also be raised to189.5 m above sea level.

·         It will be difficult to say NO to Water Export Revenue of $433 Million/year at the auction price of $0.13/ m3s for 135 m3

·         Each of the 150 million people whose needs could be served by the project would pay the reasonable rate of $50 per year.  So, annual income from the exports would be $7.5 billion.      

·         The total initial cost of this mega project is $347.5 + $232.25 = $580 million.

·         HUG has a potential of Hydro Revenue of $210 Million/yr (11 kW/m2)

·         HUG has a potential of Water Export Revenue of 56 m3s@auction price of $0.13/ m3s of $180 Million/yr/HUG System

·         Water Export Revenue of 2000 m3s = $6.4 Billion/yr for 35 HUG Siphon Systems

·         Return on Investment : $180 +$210 / $580 million = 67%/yr for 1 HUG System.

·         An alternative desalination plant (1.2 m3s) is twice the price, because it is energy intensive and it incurs high-pollution costs that could escalate as energy price increase.

Great lakes areas of concernzz
HUG WATER TRANSFER

·         Nine bodies of 265 m3s water share the same environment: only a distance of 1.5 m to 12 km apart, which can be diverted to Lake Superior.

 MORE DETAILS:

HUG WATER TRANSFER  A spiraling pipeline allows the transfer of water to travel two to three times faster, abet longer distances, because of the physics of the vortex: water prefers to travel in a whirlpool fashion rather than a turbulent straight line.

SOME IMPORTANT LINKS:

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

AFRICA RENEWED supported by:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7. God’s Loveletters:  Godloveletters.com
  8. A Rabbit and Fish Farm:  Africapitalism.us 
  9. Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

 

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES

PROOF OF HEAVEN

 

HUG & DAM DECOMMISSIONING

 DAM REMOVAL SOLUTION

Decommissioned Dam
Decommissioned Dam

Dam removal is the process of removing out-dated, dangerous, or ecologically damaging dams from river systems. There are thousands of out-dated dams in the United States that were built in the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as many more recent ones that have caused such great ecological damage, and they are proposed for removal as Decommissioned Dams. We introduce the HUG low cost solution.

The problem

By 2020, over 70% of US dams will be 50 years or older and in need of repair, replacement or removal. In addition, there are over 49,000 low-head, non-powered dams in the U.S. suitable for hydro power. This presents a unique opportunity to equip or upgrade dams, thus providing a financial incentive for dam restoration while contributing to the country’s clean energy portfolio.

Existing options are not suited for low head sites

Current state-of-the-art solutions for low head small and micro hydro systems are generally a one size fits all solution. As a result, turbomachinery suppliers either provide standardized runners with lower efficiencies because the specifics of the water flow and head are not adequately taken into account, or they adjust their design to the waterway under consideration and must then charge large engineering fees. Either way, the project is often not efficient and therefore not economically attractive particularly at the lower end of the head range.

Current costs are too high

Current costs for new turbo- machinery is exorbitantly expensive, rendering a profitable endeavor at most small and micro hydro sites unfeasible. Turbo-machinery suppliers provide standardized runners that will operate within a wide window of head ranges, but providing unacceptable efficiencies at the upper and lower edge of the ranges; or will charge excessive engineering fees when requested to provide the site specific turbine geometry that is required to economically produce power.

Current methods are outdated and inefficient

Small and micro hydro turbines available on the market today are designed and fabricated using methods and materials developed in the 1930’s. These existing designs are expensive and overbuilt, and typically limited to sites with much higher heads than is generally the case. Accordingly, small hydro units are either not optimized for the specific location, or require significant engineering cost that make the value proposition unattractive in most cases.

The cost of upgrading and maintaining many older dams to meet present safety standards is becoming significant as we see from the estimates of the cost to revive the Maynard Dam with a final return on investments in 20 years.

Many older dams, especially those associated with abandoned or outdated industrial and navigation facilities are no longer needed. Many of these old dams in the US have simply been abandoned by their owners, when the cost of maintaining an old dam exceeds the receipts from power sales and liability increases.

The Competition

Maynard Dam was chosen based on the results of the USACE National Hydropower Resource Assessment (2013) that identified

 Annual generation of 249,829 MWh (20 MW)

Maynard Dam Decommissioning

                   $203,533,845/20,000 kW = $10,175/ kW

                $203,533,845/249,829,000 kW = $.81/KWh

The Canadian Scene

Many of Ontario’s thousands of dams are reaching an age where they’re breaking down. Dams, if not serving a purpose for flood control or electricity generation, are now generally thought of as obstructing the health of rivers.

Of the 2,000 dams in British Columbia, 400 have either outlived their usefulness, provide only marginal benefits, or severely harm coastal fisheries. With the removal of nearly two-dozen small dams in the province, support is growing for more ambitious decommissioning proposals.

On British Columbia’s Theodosia River, a plan to revitalize lucrative commercial- and sport-salmon fisheries in the Georgia Straits is the basis for a plan to decommission a 35-year-old water diversion dam. If removed, the 8-meter-high, 125-meter-long, Theodosia Dam would be the largest dam ever dismantled in Canada.

“No dam was meant to last forever” – they do age and, eventually, outlive their usefulness. 

In a review of all B.C. dams in 2010, after the Testalinden Dam near Oliver collapsed causing major damage, the Providence Dam was deemed one of the most dangerous in the province.

Enter the HUG!Untitled-62

  • Instead of decommissioning dams, which are idle, we should look at decommissioning dams by installing several HUG. There could be a high rate of return because the cost would be relatively low and even lower considering adding the cost of deconstruction. One project alone in Washington cost $325 million to decommission. A narrow set of rapids would be part of the plan in order to allow the wild steel head and salmon to return to the river above the former dam site.
  • How is it possible for a HUG to save the day?  The flow over the dam would be fed into a HUG, which has a helical turbine that rotates an electrical generator. A modulated control assures that the HUG is always filled to the top in order to maintain a constant pressure on the turbine. The electric generator is wired for a steady 60Hz AC current at a required voltage without the use of expensive control systems. We have just saved $325 million and we are now back to producing power as usual.

HUG: Height : 2.14 m; Length 7 m

Kinetic Energy½ x  A x V 3 x efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity)

                = ½ x 5 m2 x (8.3 m/s)3 x .35 = 500 kW/turbine x 9 Turbines = 4.5 MW

Adding Power Economically to a Non-Powered Dam

KINETIC ENERGY = ½ × A × V3  x efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity

1/2 x 1.75 m2 x (10 m/sec)3 x 35%= 306 kW x 6.5 (Venturi )= 2 MW   

  1. Our First Step: to test a 1/20th scale model ($250,000) with an engineering company partner.
  2. Then an actual working prototype on a HUG FLOAT for $1.3 million       

Budget Allowance: $1,300,000 2 MW Decommissioned Dam HUG System: Cost: $78/KW or $0.01/kWh

  • HUG System                                                                                 $675,000
  • 1 Helical Turbine installed                                                      125,000
  • 1 Electrical Generator installed                                              40,000
  • 1 Submersible  Pump  installed                                                10,000
  • HUG System installed                                                             500,000
  • Engineering Planning and Design: 15%                          195,000
  • Contingency, Insurance, Legal costs: 10%                     130,000
  • Grid Connection 5%                                                                        65,000
  • Ten Year Refit 3%                                                                              39,000
  • Loan Interest 3%                                                                                39,000
  • Installation 3%                                                                                    39,000
  • Facilities 3%                                                                                          39,000
  • Mooring 2%                                                                                           26,000
  • Construction Management 3%                                                 39,000
  • O&M First Year 1%                                                                           13,000

Budget Allowance:                                               $1,299,000 

Annual Return on Investment:  90% utilization: 6,370 MWh [x $79 (Quebec)] $500,000: ROI = 38%/yr.

Annual Return on Investment: (Ontario FIT) (using $131/MWh)  $835,000     ROI = 64%/yr.

 MORE DETAIL

HUG INNOVATION:  HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a New Good.

GREEN HYDRO POWER STATIONS The installation of most of very low head sites is technically feasible, but civil works give rise to high costs, resulting to economically enviable projects. To solve this problem, one must design a new machine using a completely different philosophy to equip such sites. The study of current turbines reveals that they were all invented on the basis of a poor understanding of hydrodynamics, and a consequent false premise.

MOBILE HUG: The HUG development is an exciting breakthrough in green energy. Small batches of HUG turbines can be installed with only a short period of 12 to 18 months between investment in the technology and the time when revenue starts to flow: it is modular, relatively easy to install and highly scalable.  

PRE-FABRICATED HUG Standardized pre-fabricated modules should make it possible to order this new product as a “power plant kit” just like ordering from a catalog. The HUG power plant uses standardized parts, so no custom engineering is necessary. A one-size-fits-all pathway could be ordered.

Why is the HUG Frictionless? When we direct the water to flow at its natural mode, it hugs the inner wall. This kind of vortex motion tends to accelerate and contract the stream of water. The less collisions improves the flow, i.e. the better ordered and more dense the flow will be. The net result is that the velocity of the flow in the HUG is four to five times faster than the river velocity.

SOME IMPORTANT LINKS:

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

AFRICA RENEWED supported by:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7. God’s Loveletters:  Godloveletters.com
  8. A Rabbit and Fish Farm:  Africapitalism.us 
  9. Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES

PROOF OF HEAVEN

 

 

TIDAL POWER

 ENERGY OF TIDAL POWER

Extracting Tidal Energy TIDAL HUG
Extracting Tidal Energy

The Bay of Fundy, (40‘ high), which is the site of the highest tide in the world, is shaped like a horn, which was developed by helical waves over millions of years. It is the same shape found at Anchorage, Alaska (27′ high), because they were created by the same energy of helical waves. The wave of this system causes the water to increase its speed as it is deflected at each turn. The narrowest point of the Inlet at Anchorage, Alaska has mid-channel speeds up to six knots with an average of 3.8 knots that produce amazing tidal power.

letete Passage Fundy Continue reading TIDAL POWER

HUG WATER TRANSFER

How  Proposed Water Transfer Works 

HUG WATER TRANSFER: Cyprus project
HUG WATER TRANSFER: Cyprus project

A spiraling pipeline allows the transfer of water to travel two to three times faster, abet longer distances: water prefers to travel in a whirlpool fashion rather than a turbulent straight line. We introduce the HUG Water Transfer System.

The PVC pipeline is produced in a braided fashion. The cross section of the HUG pipeline is more efficient because of the physics of the vortex.

The manufacturing of the HUG pipeline is extremely efficient: the interwoven pipeline is fed directly into the ocean, while being controlled by both ballasts and buoys on its journey 50 meters below the surface of the ocean.

HUG WATER TRANSFER: Cyprus project
HUG WATER TRANSFER

This invention reduces the need for large dimension water pumps and allows ocean-going fresh water transfers to exceed 500 km, where 80 km is presently the norm, because of the friction created in a straight pipeline.

How different will this new Innovative HUG® technology be?

The simple answer is that water never wants to flow in a straight line as in the case of present pipelines. Instead, the molecules of water wants to align itself in a vortex not unlike how the water leaves your bathtub — in a whirlpool configuration. So the new technology simply creates an environment where the water flows in a corkscrew fashion, but at four times the speed and with little or no friction. The actual production of the HUG begins on a pipeline laying ship.

The consequence is that you don’t need as many large water pumps with its associated reservoirs. The need for these reservoirs every 80 km prevents any long distance fresh water transfer through an ocean. Now you can float these pipelines in an ocean environment over 500 km, which allows one country to sell its excess water to another country. Presently, this excess water is wasted by its flow into the ocean.

HUG WATER TRANSFER: Cyprus project
HUG WATER TRANSFER

OUR NORTHYDRO STRATEGY

  •  Stage 1   To capture energy from Run-of-River, Rapids and Waterfalls with the HUG 
  •  Stage 2   To introduce a smaller version of the HUG: for Fish and Hunting Camps                            
  •  Stage 3   HUG Hydro electricity and irrigation in remote areas: to support work in Africa.   
  • Stage 4   To Introduce the HUG Water Transfer System to crisis area
  • Stage 5   To introduce commercially viable HUG Tidal Energy

MORE DETAILS:

Aboriginal Needs and Concerns  An Innovative HUG technology establishes a new needed Canadian infrastructure, which in turn implements and spins off other technologies.

HUG INNOVATION:  HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a New Good.

GREEN HYDRO POWER STATIONS The installation of most of very low head sites is technically feasible, but civil works give rise to high costs, resulting to economically enviable projects. To solve this problem, one must design a new machine using a completely different philosophy to equip such sites. The study of current turbines reveals that they were all invented on the basis of a poor understanding of hydrodynamics, and a consequent false premise.

MOBILE HUG: The HUG development is an exciting breakthrough in green energy. Small batches of HUG turbines can be installed with only a short period of 12 to 18 months between investment in the technology and the time when revenue starts to flow: it is modular, relatively easy to install and highly scalable.  

PRE-FABRICATED HUG Standardized pre-fabricated modules should make it possible to order this new product as a “power plant kit” just like ordering from a catalog. The HUG power plant uses standardized parts, so no custom engineering is necessary. A one-size-fits-all pathway could be ordered.

Why is the HUG Frictionless? When we direct the water to flow at its natural mode, it hugs the inner wall. This kind of vortex motion tends to accelerate and contract the stream of water. The less collisions improves the flow, i.e. the better ordered and more dense the flow will be. The net result is that the velocity of the flow in the HUG is four to five times faster than the river velocity.

RING of FIRE The Ring of Fire Potential will come down to one factor, which will make or break any prospects: Hydro Electricity. Enter the HUG!

LABRADOR ENERGY POTENTIAL  Any new technology leads to new growth opportunities: HUG is a Patented Energy System that will literally change the face of our world as we know it.

 

SOME IMPORTANT LINKS:

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

AFRICA RENEWED supported by:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7. God’s Loveletters:  Godloveletters.com
  8. A Rabbit and Fish Farm:  Africapitalism.us 

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES

PROOF OF HEAVEN

AFRICAN WATER TRANSFER

Water Transfer Technology in Africa

HUG is a patented water transfer system that will literally change the face of our world as we know it, especially in AfricaImagine new fresh water delivered over 1000 km in a HUG ocean pipeline.

AFRICAN WATER TRANSFERS
AFRICAN WATER TRANSFERS

What we call violent conflict should be seen for what it is: poverty hunger, water scarcity & despair. Most of all we need to subdue our fears and cynicism and provide HOPE. We need science and technology.

ANGOLA

Angola has an abundance of water, but they lack the means to deliver it to Luanda. Only one in six Luandans in Angola have basic sanitation services. Thousands of Angolans died of cholera in 2006 caused by filthy rivers.

AFRICAN WATER TRANSFERS
ANGOLA HUG WATER TRANSFERS

SENEGAL

Senegal can alleviate Extreme Water Stress for itself and parts of Africa. Total Water Loss to the Sea: 30%

AFRICAN WATER TRANSFERS
SENEGAL HUG WATER TRANSFERS

GHANA

Ghana can alleviate Extreme Water Stress for itself and parts of Africa.  Total Water Loss to the Sea: 50%.

AFRICAN WATER TRANSFERS
GHANA HUG WATER TRANSFERS

KENYA

Continue reading AFRICAN WATER TRANSFER